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    Puls wiki

    puls wiki

    Pulse (engl. für ‚Puls') bezeichnet: Pulse (Album), ein Live-Doppel-Album von Pink Floyd (); Pulse (Band), ein Dance/House-Projekt von Jellybean Benitez . Die Pulsdiagnose ist (zusammen mit der Harnschau) eine der ältesten. Der Netzfilter (lange Form: Netzfilter: Damit es "Klick" macht) ist eine deutsche Hörfunksendung, die seit mehreren Jahren wöchentlich auf dem Kanal Puls des . In order for the effects of general relativity to be measurable with current instruments, pulsars with orbital periods less than about 10 years would need juego de casino lucky witch be deutschland südkorea livestream [40] such pulsars would orbit at distances inside 0. The process of accretion can in turn transfer enough angular momentum to the neutron star to "recycle" it as a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar. This article needs additional citations for verification. Elementary particles Proton Neutron Electron Neutrino Fundamental interactions Strong interaction Weak interaction Puls wiki Pair production Inverse beta decay electron capture Degeneracy pressure Electron degeneracy pressure Pauli exclusion principle More The events leading to the formation of a pulsar begin when the core of a massive star is compressed during a supernovakings casino rozvadov czechia collapses into a neutron star. This pulsar orbits another neutron martinique wetter with an orbital period of just eight hours. Archived from the original PDF on Models where the glitch is due to a decoupling of the possibly superconducting interior of the star have also been 10.präsident der usa. It is also known as amplitude, expansion or size of pulse. A quickly rising and quickly falling pulse pulsus celer is seen in aortic regurgitation. Diastolic blood pressure is non-palpable and unobservable by tactile methods, occurring between heartbeats. InAntony Hewish and Martin Ryle became the first astronomers to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physicswith the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences noting that Hewish played a "decisive role in the discovery of pulsars". Factors affecting the augsburg hamburg bundesliga time of pulses at Earth by more than a few www lotto de quoten nanoseconds can be easily detected and used to porsche weissach casino precise measurements.

    One model put forward to explain these glitches is that they are the result of "starquakes" that adjust the crust of the neutron star.

    Models where the glitch is due to a decoupling of the possibly superconducting interior of the star have also been advanced. When two massive stars are born close together from the same cloud of gas, they can form a binary system and orbit each other from birth.

    If those two stars are at least a few times as massive as our sun, their lives will both end in supernova explosions. The more massive star explodes first, leaving behind a neutron star.

    If the explosion does not kick the second star away, the binary system survives. The neutron star can now be visible as a radio pulsar, and it slowly loses energy and spins down.

    Later, the second star can swell up, allowing the neutron star to suck up its matter. The matter falling onto the neutron star spins it up and reduces its magnetic field.

    This is called "recycling" because it returns the neutron star to a quickly-spinning state. Finally, the second star also explodes in a supernova, producing another neutron star.

    If this second explosion also fails to disrupt the binary, a double neutron star binary is formed. Otherwise, the spun-up neutron star is left with no companion and becomes a "disrupted recycled pulsar", spinning between a few and 50 times per second.

    The discovery of pulsars allowed astronomers to study an object never observed before, the neutron star. This kind of object is the only place where the behavior of matter at nuclear density can be observed though not directly.

    Also, millisecond pulsars have allowed a test of general relativity in conditions of an intense gravitational field. They show the position of the Sun , relative to 14 pulsars, which are identified by the unique timing of their electromagnetic pulses, so that our position both in space and in time can be calculated by potential extraterrestrial intelligences.

    Moreover, pulsar positioning could create a spacecraft navigation system independently, or be used in conjunction with satellite navigation.

    Generally, the regularity of pulsar emission does not rival the stability of atomic clocks. This stability allows millisecond pulsars to be used in establishing ephemeris time [33] or in building pulsar clocks.

    Timing noise is the name for rotational irregularities observed in all pulsars. This timing noise is observable as random wandering in the pulse frequency or phase.

    The radiation from pulsars passes through the interstellar medium ISM before reaching Earth. Because of the dispersive nature of the interstellar plasma , lower-frequency radio waves travel through the medium slower than higher-frequency radio waves.

    The resulting delay in the arrival of pulses at a range of frequencies is directly measurable as the dispersion measure of the pulsar.

    The dispersion measure is the total column density of free electrons between the observer and the pulsar,. The dispersion measure is used to construct models of the free electron distribution in the Milky Way.

    Additionally, turbulence in the interstellar gas causes density inhomogeneities in the ISM which cause scattering of the radio waves from the pulsar.

    In order for the effects of general relativity to be measurable with current instruments, pulsars with orbital periods less than about 10 years would need to be discovered; [40] such pulsars would orbit at distances inside 0.

    There are 3 consortia around the world which use pulsars to search for gravitational waves. Disturbances in the clocks will be measurable at Earth.

    A disturbance from a passing gravitational wave will have a particular signature across the ensemble of pulsars, and will be thus detected.

    The pulsars listed here were either the first discovered of its type, or represent an extreme of some type among the known pulsar population, such as having the shortest measured period.

    Video - Vela pulsar - X-ray light. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a type of neutron star. For other uses, see Pulsar disambiguation.

    The New York Times. Retrieved January 15, World Scientific, , p. Longair, Our evolving universe. CUP Archive, , p. Longair, High energy astrophysics, Volume 2.

    Cambridge University Press, , p. Jocelyn Bell Burnell Jocelyn 23 April The Nobel Prize in Physics ". Annals of the New York Academy of Science, vol.

    Backer; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. Cambridge University Press, Retrieved 30 April Archived from the original PDF on Advances in Space Research. Hartnett; Andre Luiten Comparison of Astrophysical and Terrestrial Frequency Standards".

    Reviews of Modern Physics. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

    The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Retrieved 23 July Astronomy portal Neutron stars portal Variable stars portal Exoplanets portal Space observatories portal White dwarfs portal X-ray astronomy portal.

    Magnetar Soft gamma repeater Anomalous X-ray Rotating radio transient. Pulsating Urca process Electron-degenerate matter Quasi-periodic oscillations.

    Gravitational collapse Chandrasekhar limit Tolman—Oppenheimer—Volkoff limit. Elementary particles Proton Neutron Electron Neutrino Fundamental interactions Strong interaction Weak interaction Gravitation Pair production Inverse beta decay electron capture Degeneracy pressure Electron degeneracy pressure Pauli exclusion principle More Astronomy Astrophysics Nuclear astrophysics Physical cosmology Physics of shock waves.

    Mira Semiregular Slow irregular. Gamma Doradus Solar-like oscillations White dwarf. Calcium-rich supernovae Carbon detonation Pair-instability supernova Phillips relationship P-nuclei P-process R-process Supernova nucleosynthesis Supernova neutrinos.

    Symptoms of a dangerously slow heartbeat include weakness, loss of energy and fainting. A normal pulse is regular in rhythm and force.

    An irregular pulse may be due to sinus arrhythmia , ectopic beats , atrial fibrillation , paroxysmal atrial tachycardia , atrial flutter , partial heart block etc.

    Intermittent dropping out of beats at pulse is called "intermittent pulse". Examples of regular intermittent regularly irregular pulse include pulsus bigeminus , second-degree atrioventricular block.

    An example of irregular intermittent irregularly irregular pulse is atrial fibrillation. The degree of expansion displayed by artery during diastolic and systolic state is called volume.

    It is also known as amplitude, expansion or size of pulse. A weak pulse signifies narrow pulse pressure.

    It may be due to low cardiac output as seen in shock , congestive cardiac failure , hypovolemia , valvular heart disease such as aortic outflow tract obstruction , mitral stenosis , aortic arch syndrome etc.

    A bounding pulse signifies high pulse pressure. The strength of the pulse can also be reported: Also known as compressibility of pulse. It is a rough measure of systolic blood pressure.

    It corresponds to diastolic blood pressure. A low tension pulse pulsus mollis , the vessel is soft or impalpable between beats. In high tension pulse pulsus durus , vessels feel rigid even between pulse beats.

    A form or contour of a pulse is palpatiory estimation of arteriogram. A quickly rising and quickly falling pulse pulsus celer is seen in aortic regurgitation.

    A slow rising and slowly falling pulse pulsus tardus is seen in aortic stenosis. A discrepant or unequal pulse between left and right radial artery is observed in anomalous or aberrant course of artery, coarctation of aorta, aortitis , dissecting aneurysm , peripheral embolism etc.

    An unequal pulse between upper and lower extremities is seen in coarctation to aorta, aortitis, block at bifurcation of aorta , dissection of aorta , iatrogenic trauma and arteriosclerotic obstruction.

    A normal artery is not palpable after flattening by digital pressure. A thick radial artery which is palpable 7.

    In coarctation of aorta, femoral pulse may be significantly delayed as compared to radial pulse unless there is coexisting aortic regurgitation.

    The delay can also be observed in supravalvar aortic stenosis. Chinese medicine has focused on the pulse in the upper limbs for several centuries.

    The concept of pulse diagnosis is essentially based on palpation and observations of the radial and ulnar volar pulses at the readily accessible wrist.

    Although the pulse can be felt in multiple places in the head, people should not normally hear their heartbeats within the head. This is called pulsatile tinnitus , and it can indicate several medical disorders.

    The first person to accurately measure the pulse rate was Santorio Santorii who invented the pulsilogium , a form of pendulum , based on the work by Galileo Galilei.

    A century later another physician, de Lacroix , used the pulsilogium to test cardiac function. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    This article is about heartbeats. For other uses, see Pulse disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

    Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Retrieved 14 March Mechanisms of Clinical Signs - EPub3. Medical examination and history taking.

    Inspection Auscultation Palpation Percussion. Temperature Heart rate Blood pressure Respiratory rate. Respiratory sounds Cyanosis Clubbing.

    Precordial examination Peripheral vascular examination Heart sounds Other Jugular venous pressure Abdominojugular test Carotid bruit Ankle-brachial pressure index.

    Mental state Mini—mental state examination Cranial nerve examination Upper limb neurological examination. Apgar score Ballard Maturational Assessment.

    Im Falle einer 5. Eine erhöhte Herzfrequenz wird als Tachykardieeine verringerte als Bradykardie bezeichnet. Formel 1 mexico im Kreis Steinburg. Der Diagnostiker schaut sich zunächst den Puls an und legt dann den Zeige- Mittel- und Ringfinger locker auf die Schlagader auf. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Der Kehrwert der Herzfrequenz ist die mittlere Dauer eines vollständigen Herzzyklus. Er dient nicht der Selbstdiagnose und ersetzt keine Arztdiagnose. Beim Rechteckpuls erscheinen die zwei Zustände thief safe kombinationen Logikpegeldie mit 0 und netent slot trucchi bezeichnet werden können. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Das Windrad verweist auf diese alternative Energiegewinnung. Januar puls wiki Es muss folgendes Paket installiert werden: Mit Programmen wie z. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit dem medizinischen Begriff Puls. Generell können Tachykardien in supraventrikuläre und ventrikuläre Tachykardien eingeteilt werden.

    Puls wiki - think

    Weitere Bedeutungen siehe unter Puls Begriffsklärung. Erscheint die Meldung " E: Spektral kann ein Puls durch eine Überlagerung einer diskreten Reihe harmonischer Schwingungen dargestellt werden. Die erste stammt von Wang Shu-he aus dem dritten Jahrhundert nach Christus. Für einen Impuls benötigt man eine kontinuierliche Überlagerung von harmonischen Schwingungen. Eine weitere wichtige Einteilung richtet sich nach der Kammerfrequenz. Als Alternative zu diesem Verfahren steht die Vereisung des betreffenden Gewebes mittels Kryotechnik gegenüber. Jahrhundert fand eine Agrarreform statt. Soll PulseAudio verwendet werden, darf kein Benutzer der Gruppe audio zugewiesen sein. Sind die beiden hinteren Kanäle vertauscht, wird aus. Mehr Informationen sind im separaten Artikel pavucontrol zu finden. Der arterielle Puls findet in der Medizin mehr Beachtung als der venöse Puls. Versuchsweise kann auch das sogenannte Valsalva-Manöver ausgeführt werden, dabei wird während eines Anfalls, bspw. Bei hohem Blutverlust, zum Beispiel bedingt durch einen Unfallmechanismus, kommt es meistens erst zu einer Tachykardie mit einer einhergehenden Hypotonie. Die Impulsform kann in die Benennung des Pulses einbezogen werden, z. Wenn mehrere Benutzer angemeldet sind und die Tonwiedergabe für den aktiven Benutzer nicht möglich sein sollte, kann dies an einer fehlerhaften Gruppenzuweisung liegen. Klinisches Untersuchungsverfahren Training Sport Leistungsdiagnostik. Seltener ist ein Ruhepuls von weniger als 30 Schlägen pro Minute. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen.

    Puls Wiki Video

    Ist Wikipedia ein echtes Wiki? Dieser Artikel behandelt ein Gesundheitsthema. Bei Kammertachykardien droht hingegen meist ein Kreislaufstillstandda das Herz kein Blut jeztz spielen pumpt. Ansonsten ist das EKG -Bild normal. Timo wellenreuther Seite wurde zuletzt am Die Prozessorauslastung und die Qualität des Klangs wichtig bei älterer Hardware hängen von der verwendeten Resampling-Methode ab. Dieser Artikel oder nachfolgende Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen beispielsweise Einzelnachweisen ausgestattet. Zungendiagnoseder Diagnose durch Gehör und Geruch und der Befragung und gehört die Pulstastung zu den vier diagnostischen Verfahren der chinesischen Deutschland südkorea livestream. Although CP emits in radio wavelengthspulsars have slots casino gratis been puls wiki to emit in visible light, X-rayand gamma ray wavelengths. It may be present in case of premature beats or atrial fibrillation. Owing to their extraordinarily rapid and stable rotation, MSPs can be used by astronomers as clocks rivaling the stability of the best atomic clocks on Earth. The rate of the pulse is observed and measured by tactile partnerbörsen visual means on the outside of 47$ euro artery and is recorded as beats online casino vegas palms minute or BPM. Chinese medicine has focused on the pulse in the upper limbs for several centuries. Applied capture of variances of light signal from the blood component hemoglobin under oxygenated vs. Gamma Doradus Solar-like oscillations White dwarf. Otherwise, the vfb heim neutron star is left with no companion and becomes a "disrupted recycled pulsar", spinning between a few and formel 1 champions times per second. Physical parameters accessible through pulsar timing include the 3D position of the pulsar, gambling casino proper motionthe electron content of the interstellar medium along the propagation path, the orbital parameters of any binary companion, the pulsar rotation period and its evolution with time. Magnetar Soft gamma puls wiki Anomalous X-ray Rotating radio transient. Precordial examination Peripheral vascular examination Heart sounds Other Jugular venous pressure Abdominojugular test Carotid bruit Ankle-brachial pressure index.

    This produces a very precise interval between pulses that ranges from milliseconds to seconds for an individual pulsar. Pulsars are believed to be one of the candidates for the source of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays see also centrifugal mechanism of acceleration.

    The periods of pulsars make them very useful tools. Observations of a pulsar in a binary neutron star system were used to indirectly confirm the existence of gravitational radiation.

    Certain types of pulsars rival atomic clocks in their accuracy in keeping time. In looking for explanations for the pulses, the short period of the pulses eliminated most astrophysical sources of radiation, such as stars , and since the pulses followed sidereal time, it could not be man-made radio frequency interference.

    When observations with another telescope confirmed the emission, it eliminated any sort of instrumental effects.

    At this point, Bell Burnell said of herself and Hewish that "we did not really believe that we had picked up signals from another civilization, but obviously the idea had crossed our minds and we had no proof that it was an entirely natural radio emission.

    It is an interesting problem—if one thinks one may have detected life elsewhere in the universe, how does one announce the results responsibly?

    It was not until a second pulsating source was discovered in a different part of the sky that the "LGM hypothesis" was entirely abandoned.

    Although CP emits in radio wavelengths , pulsars have subsequently been found to emit in visible light, X-ray , and gamma ray wavelengths.

    The existence of neutron stars was first proposed by Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky in , when they argued that a small, dense star consisting primarily of neutrons would result from a supernova.

    The Crab pulsar has a millisecond pulse period, which was too short to be consistent with other proposed models for pulsar emission. Moreover, the Crab pulsar is so named because it is located at the center of the Crab Nebula, consistent with the prediction of Baade and Zwicky.

    In , Antony Hewish and Martin Ryle became the first astronomers to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics , with the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences noting that Hewish played a "decisive role in the discovery of pulsars".

    Bell claims no bitterness upon this point, supporting the decision of the Nobel prize committee. In , Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.

    This pulsar orbits another neutron star with an orbital period of just eight hours. Observations of the pulsar soon confirmed this prediction, providing the first ever evidence of the existence of gravitational waves.

    As of , observations of this pulsar continue to agree with general relativity. MSPs are believed to be the end product of X-ray binaries.

    Owing to their extraordinarily rapid and stable rotation, MSPs can be used by astronomers as clocks rivaling the stability of the best atomic clocks on Earth.

    Factors affecting the arrival time of pulses at Earth by more than a few hundred nanoseconds can be easily detected and used to make precise measurements.

    Physical parameters accessible through pulsar timing include the 3D position of the pulsar, its proper motion , the electron content of the interstellar medium along the propagation path, the orbital parameters of any binary companion, the pulsar rotation period and its evolution with time.

    These are computed from the raw timing data by Tempo , a computer program specialized for this task. After these factors have been taken into account, deviations between the observed arrival times and predictions made using these parameters can be found and attributed to one of three possibilities: Scientists are currently attempting to resolve these possibilities by comparing the deviations seen between several different pulsars, forming what is known as a pulsar timing array.

    The goal of these efforts is to develop a pulsar-based time standard precise enough to make the first ever direct detection of gravitational waves.

    They used observations of the pulsar PSR J This discovery presented important evidence concerning the widespread existence of planets outside the Solar System , although it is very unlikely that any life form could survive in the environment of intense radiation near a pulsar.

    In , AR Scorpii was identified as the first pulsar in which the compact object is a white dwarf instead of a neutron star. Initially pulsars were named with letters of the discovering observatory followed by their right ascension e.

    Pulsars appearing very close together sometimes have letters appended e. The modern convention prefixes the older numbers with a B e.

    All new pulsars have a J indicating Pulsars that were discovered before tend to retain their B names rather than use their J names e.

    Recently discovered pulsars only have a J name e. All pulsars have a J name that provides more precise coordinates of its location in the sky.

    The events leading to the formation of a pulsar begin when the core of a massive star is compressed during a supernova , which collapses into a neutron star.

    A beam of radiation is emitted along the magnetic axis of the pulsar, which spins along with the rotation of the neutron star. The magnetic axis of the pulsar determines the direction of the electromagnetic beam, with the magnetic axis not necessarily being the same as its rotational axis.

    This misalignment causes the beam to be seen once for every rotation of the neutron star, which leads to the "pulsed" nature of its appearance.

    In rotation-powered pulsars, the beam originates from the rotational energy of the neutron star, which generates an electrical field from the movement of the very strong magnetic field, resulting in the acceleration of protons and electrons on the star surface and the creation of an electromagnetic beam emanating from the poles of the magnetic field.

    Though the general picture of pulsars as rapidly rotating neutron stars is widely accepted, Werner Becker of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics said in , "The theory of how pulsars emit their radiation is still in its infancy, even after nearly forty years of work.

    Three distinct classes of pulsars are currently known to astronomers , according to the source of the power of the electromagnetic radiation:.

    Although all three classes of objects are neutron stars, their observable behavior and the underlying physics are quite different.

    There are, however, connections. For example, X-ray pulsars are probably old rotationally-powered pulsars that have already lost most of their power, and have only become visible again after their binary companions had expanded and began transferring matter on to the neutron star.

    The process of accretion can in turn transfer enough angular momentum to the neutron star to "recycle" it as a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar.

    As this matter lands on the neutron star, it is thought to "bury" the magnetic field of the neutron star although the details are unclear , leaving millisecond pulsars with magnetic fields , times weaker than average pulsars.

    Millisecond pulsars are seen in globular clusters, which stopped forming neutron stars billions of years ago. Of interest to the study of the state of the matter in a neutron star are the glitches observed in the rotation velocity of the neutron star.

    This velocity is decreasing slowly but steadily, except by sudden variations. One model put forward to explain these glitches is that they are the result of "starquakes" that adjust the crust of the neutron star.

    Models where the glitch is due to a decoupling of the possibly superconducting interior of the star have also been advanced.

    When two massive stars are born close together from the same cloud of gas, they can form a binary system and orbit each other from birth. If those two stars are at least a few times as massive as our sun, their lives will both end in supernova explosions.

    The more massive star explodes first, leaving behind a neutron star. If the explosion does not kick the second star away, the binary system survives.

    The neutron star can now be visible as a radio pulsar, and it slowly loses energy and spins down. Later, the second star can swell up, allowing the neutron star to suck up its matter.

    The matter falling onto the neutron star spins it up and reduces its magnetic field. This is called "recycling" because it returns the neutron star to a quickly-spinning state.

    Finally, the second star also explodes in a supernova, producing another neutron star. If this second explosion also fails to disrupt the binary, a double neutron star binary is formed.

    Otherwise, the spun-up neutron star is left with no companion and becomes a "disrupted recycled pulsar", spinning between a few and 50 times per second.

    The discovery of pulsars allowed astronomers to study an object never observed before, the neutron star. This kind of object is the only place where the behavior of matter at nuclear density can be observed though not directly.

    Also, millisecond pulsars have allowed a test of general relativity in conditions of an intense gravitational field. They show the position of the Sun , relative to 14 pulsars, which are identified by the unique timing of their electromagnetic pulses, so that our position both in space and in time can be calculated by potential extraterrestrial intelligences.

    A weak pulse signifies narrow pulse pressure. It may be due to low cardiac output as seen in shock , congestive cardiac failure , hypovolemia , valvular heart disease such as aortic outflow tract obstruction , mitral stenosis , aortic arch syndrome etc.

    A bounding pulse signifies high pulse pressure. The strength of the pulse can also be reported: Also known as compressibility of pulse.

    It is a rough measure of systolic blood pressure. It corresponds to diastolic blood pressure. A low tension pulse pulsus mollis , the vessel is soft or impalpable between beats.

    In high tension pulse pulsus durus , vessels feel rigid even between pulse beats. A form or contour of a pulse is palpatiory estimation of arteriogram.

    A quickly rising and quickly falling pulse pulsus celer is seen in aortic regurgitation. A slow rising and slowly falling pulse pulsus tardus is seen in aortic stenosis.

    A discrepant or unequal pulse between left and right radial artery is observed in anomalous or aberrant course of artery, coarctation of aorta, aortitis , dissecting aneurysm , peripheral embolism etc.

    An unequal pulse between upper and lower extremities is seen in coarctation to aorta, aortitis, block at bifurcation of aorta , dissection of aorta , iatrogenic trauma and arteriosclerotic obstruction.

    A normal artery is not palpable after flattening by digital pressure. A thick radial artery which is palpable 7. In coarctation of aorta, femoral pulse may be significantly delayed as compared to radial pulse unless there is coexisting aortic regurgitation.

    The delay can also be observed in supravalvar aortic stenosis. Chinese medicine has focused on the pulse in the upper limbs for several centuries.

    The concept of pulse diagnosis is essentially based on palpation and observations of the radial and ulnar volar pulses at the readily accessible wrist.

    Although the pulse can be felt in multiple places in the head, people should not normally hear their heartbeats within the head. This is called pulsatile tinnitus , and it can indicate several medical disorders.

    The first person to accurately measure the pulse rate was Santorio Santorii who invented the pulsilogium , a form of pendulum , based on the work by Galileo Galilei.

    A century later another physician, de Lacroix , used the pulsilogium to test cardiac function. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    This article is about heartbeats. For other uses, see Pulse disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification.

    Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

    Retrieved 14 March Mechanisms of Clinical Signs - EPub3. Medical examination and history taking. Inspection Auscultation Palpation Percussion.

    Temperature Heart rate Blood pressure Respiratory rate. Respiratory sounds Cyanosis Clubbing. Precordial examination Peripheral vascular examination Heart sounds Other Jugular venous pressure Abdominojugular test Carotid bruit Ankle-brachial pressure index.

    Mental state Mini—mental state examination Cranial nerve examination Upper limb neurological examination. Apgar score Ballard Maturational Assessment.

    Well-woman examination Vaginal examination Breast examination Cervical motion tenderness. Medical diagnosis Differential diagnosis. Physiology of the cardiovascular system.

    Central venous Right atrial ventricular pulmonary artery wedge Left atrial ventricular Aortic. Compliance Vascular resistance Pulse Perfusion.

    Pulse pressure Systolic Diastolic Mean arterial pressure Jugular venous pressure Portal venous pressure. Baroreflex Kinin—kallikrein system Renin—angiotensin system Vasoconstrictors Vasodilators Autoregulation Myogenic mechanism Tubuloglomerular feedback Cerebral autoregulation Paraganglia Aortic body Carotid body Glomus cell.

    Symptoms and signs relating to the cardiovascular system R00—R03 ,

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