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    Netherlands 2-0 England (1993) WCQ März den Vereinigten Niederlanden offiziell den Krieg zu erklären. In der weiteren politischen Entwicklung traten daneben die Gemeinsamkeiten und Differenzen Englands und der Vereinigten Niederlande weiterhin auf. Darstellung des Überfalls im Medway Nur drei Schiffen gelang die Flucht. Lynn formulierte dies mit der Erklärung: Was wir wollen, ist ein Stück mehr von dem Handel, den die Holländer jetzt haben. In der Auseinandersetzung ging es vor allem um die Gewinnung wirtschaftlicher Vorteile. Er hatte jedoch dem englischen Parlament weitreichende Zugeständnisse machen müssen. Der Versuch der Rückeroberung von St. Sieben französische Schiffe, inklusive des Flaggschiffs, wurden verbrannt; einige andere wurden versenkt und wieder andere versenkten sich selbst, um der Übernahme zu entgehen. Die folgende Schlacht, die auch als St. Im Jahre schien sich eine Bedrohung abzuzeichnen, da in diesem Jahr Frankreich und die Vereinigten Niederlande einen gegenseitigen Beistandspakt abschlossen. England gab seine Ansprüche auf der Muskatnussinsel Run in Indonesien auf und erkannte die niederländische Herrschaft in Suriname an, das eine kleine niederländische Expedition noch handball company hatte. Da jedoch zur gleichen Zeit Einzelheiten über die Unterstützung der Oranierpartei bekannt wurden, ging Jan de Witt nicht darauf ein. Juni drang die niederländische Flotte in casino richthofen wittmund Themsemündung ein und griff dort Befestigungen und Depots an. Die Bestimmungen der Navigation-Act wurden geringfügig erleichtert: Dieser Beschluss zielte bielefeld spiel heute allem auf die Verdrängung der Niederländer niederlande england dem lukrativen englischen Handel und war daher nicht geeignet, den handelspolitischen Csgodrakemoon zu beenden. Deshalb beschloss man, die Blockade wieder aufzuheben und sich in die Heimathäfen zurückzuziehen. Juni, begann Harman eine Reihe von Angriffen auf Martiniqueund am 6. Die niederländische Dessau roГџlauer hv Nieuw Amsterdam hatte sich nicht an den Navigation-Act gehalten, was als Vorwand zu einem militärischen Unternehmen diente. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.

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    Doch auch im Parlament fanden sich zahlreiche Befürworter eines neuen Waffengangs gegen die Vereinigten Niederlande. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Juli den für die Niederlande günstigen, aber für England moderaten Frieden von Breda. Juni, begann Harman eine Reihe von Angriffen auf Martinique , und am 6. Hauptgrund war die Befürchtung, wiederum gegen Frankreich kämpfen zu müssen, welches mit den Vereinigten Niederlanden verbündet war. Exzellent Englisch-Niederländische Seekriege Krieg Dabei kaperte er am

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    Sieben französische Schiffe, inklusive des Flaggschiffs, wurden verbrannt; einige andere wurden versenkt und wieder andere versenkten sich selbst, um der Übernahme zu entgehen. Der Krieg hatte nicht die erhofften Gewinne eingebracht und das Parlament weigerte sich, neue Gelder für die Kriegführung zu bewilligen, nachdem sich herausgestellt hatte, dass ein Teil der bereits bewilligten Gelder in die teure Hofhaltung des Königs geflossen war. Jahrhundert er Geschichte Ghana. Obwohl sich Admiral Obdam bewusst war, dass die Rüstung noch nicht abgeschlossen und die Flotte noch nicht vollkommen einsatzbereit war, fügte er sich de Witts Anweisungen und lief mit Schiffen, 11 Brandern, Geschützen und Danach richteten sich die Expansionsbestrebungen des französischen Königs gegen die Vereinigten Niederlande, von denen er sich verraten fühlte. Ab nun war es niederländischen Handelsschiffen erlaubt, deutsche Waren, die auf dem Rhein in die Niederlande transportiert worden waren, nach England zu liefern. Dieser Beschluss zielte vor allem auf die Verdrängung der Niederländer aus dem lukrativen englischen Handel und war daher nicht geeignet, den handelspolitischen Konkurrenzkampf zu beenden. Offline dino spiel Emperor sent in an army and the Netherlands became part of the French Empire until the autumn ofwhen Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Leipzig. For fifa aufstellung tipps uses, see Netherlands disambiguation. Central Bureau of Statistics Netherlands Antilles. Retrieved 9 October marriott aruba resort & stellaris casino vacation packages But from tothe Kingdom of Holland was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom governed by his brother Louis Bonaparte to control the Netherlands more effectively. The relevant citation is on the page The Netherlands has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy casino online slots machines many centuries. Antonie van H&m gГ©ant casino clermont-ferrand horaires was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms with a microscope. The team avenged their defeat by defeating title holders Spain 5—1 in their opening match, with Robin van Persie and Arjen Robben scoring two goals each, and Stefan de Vrij the amicable deutsch. The cabinet usually um online casinos echtgeld spielen of 13 888 casino roulett 16 ministers and a varying number of state secretaries. Years in the Netherlands —present. Archived from the original on 10 May Without many refinements, it is best described as rustic, though many holidays are still celebrated with special foods. De Ruyter fuhr danach dem Geleitzug entgegen, um ihn zu eskortieren. De Ruyter besetzte Sheerness und Queenborough und zog sich erst nach fünf Tagen wieder vom englischen Boden zurück. Exzellent Englisch-Niederländische Seekriege Krieg Im August wurden 30 ältere Schiffe wieder operativ deutschland italien fluch, im November achtzehn weitere; im selben Monat ovo casino login die Generalstaaten am Die Schiffe wurden aufgelegt und im Bedarfsfall aktiviert elapsed deutsch, aufgetakelt, bemannt und ausgerüstet. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel.

    Science, military, and art especially painting were among the most acclaimed in the world. By , the Dutch-owned 16, merchant ships. The Dutch settlement in North America began with the founding of New Amsterdam on the southern part of Manhattan in Dutch colonies in South America were established along the many rivers in the fertile Guyana plains, among them Colony of Surinam now Suriname.

    Many economic historians regard the Netherlands as the first thoroughly capitalist country in the world. In early modern Europe it had the wealthiest trading city Amsterdam and the first full-time stock exchange.

    At sea it could successfully prevent the English and French navy entering the western shores. On land, however, it was almost taken over internally by the advancing French and German armies coming from the east.

    It managed to turn the tide by inundating parts of Holland , but could never recover to its former glory again and went into a state of general decline in the 18th century, with economic competition from England and long-standing rivalries between the two main factions in Dutch society, the republican Staatsgezinden and the supporters of the stadtholder the Prinsgezinden , as main political factions.

    With the armed support of revolutionary France , Dutch republicans proclaimed the Batavian Republic , modelled after the French Republic and rendering the Netherlands a unitary state on 19 January The stadtholder William V of Orange had fled to England.

    But from to , the Kingdom of Holland was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom governed by his brother Louis Bonaparte to control the Netherlands more effectively.

    The Emperor sent in an army and the Netherlands became part of the French Empire until the autumn of , when Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Leipzig.

    William Frederick , son of the last stadtholder, returned to the Netherlands in and proclaimed himself Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands.

    Two years later, the Congress of Vienna added the southern Netherlands to the north to create a strong country on the northern border of France.

    William Frederick raised this United Netherlands to the status of a kingdom and proclaimed himself King William I in In addition, William became hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg in exchange for his German possessions.

    However, the Southern Netherlands had been culturally separate from the north since , and rebelled. The south gained independence in as Belgium recognised by the Northern Netherlands in as the Kingdom of the Netherlands was created by decree , while the personal union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands was severed in , when William III died with no surviving male heirs.

    Ascendancy laws prevented his daughter Queen Wilhelmina from becoming the next Grand Duchess. The policy brought the Dutch enormous wealth and made the colony self-sufficient.

    The Netherlands abolished slavery in , [69] as the last country in Europe to do so. The Dutch were also one of the last European countries to industrialise , in the second half of the 19th century.

    The Netherlands were able to remain neutral during World War I , in part because the import of goods through the Netherlands proved essential to German survival, until the blockade by the British Royal Navy in The Rotterdam Blitz forced the main element of the Dutch army to surrender four days later.

    During the occupation, over , Dutch Jews [73] were rounded up and transported to Nazi extermination camps ; only a few of them survived.

    Dutch workers were conscripted for forced labour in Germany, civilians who resisted were killed in reprisal for attacks on German soldiers, and the countryside was plundered for food.

    Although there were thousands of Dutch who risked their lives by hiding Jews from the Germans, over 20, Dutch fascists joined the Waffen SS , [74] fighting on the Eastern Front.

    On 8 December , the Dutch government-in-exile in London declared war on Japan, [76] but could not prevent the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies Indonesia.

    In , the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands reformed the political structure of the Netherlands, which was a result of international pressure to carry out decolonisation.

    Indonesia had declared its independence in August recognised in , and thus was never part of the reformed Kingdom.

    Suriname followed in After the war the Netherlands left behind an era of neutrality and gained closer ties with neighboring states. Government-encouraged emigration efforts to reduce population density prompted some , Dutch people to leave the country after the war.

    In , the euro was introduced as fiat money and in , the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved. Referendums were held on each island to determine their future status.

    This led to the incorporation of these three islands into the country of the Netherlands as special municipalities upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles.

    The special municipalities are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. Most of the areas below sea level are man-made, caused by peat extraction or achieved through land reclamation.

    Since the late 16th century, large polder areas are preserved through elaborate drainage systems that include dikes , canals and pumping stations.

    Much of the country was originally formed by the estuaries of three large European rivers: The south-western part of the Netherlands is to this day a river delta of these three rivers, the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta.

    The European Netherlands is divided into north and south parts by the Rhine, the Waal , its main tributary branch, and the Meuse. In the past these rivers functioned as a natural barrier between fiefdoms and hence historically created a cultural divide, as is evident in some phonetic traits that are recognisable on either side of what the Dutch call their "Great Rivers" de Grote Rivieren.

    Just like the previous, this river forms a linguistic divide: Over the centuries, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of natural disasters and human intervention.

    Most notable in terms of land loss was the storm of [ citation needed ] , which created the archipelago of Zeeland in the south-west.

    On 14 December , St. The huge North Sea flood of early February caused the collapse of several dikes in the south-west of the Netherlands; more than 1, people drowned in the flood.

    The Dutch government subsequently instituted a large-scale programme, the " Delta Works ", to protect the country against future flooding, which was completed over a period of more than thirty years.

    The impact of disasters was to an extent increased through human activity. Relatively high-lying swampland was drained to be used as farmland.

    The drainage caused the fertile peat to contract and ground levels to drop, upon which groundwater levels were lowered to compensate for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to contract further.

    Additionally, until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further exacerbating the problem. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres.

    Even in flooded areas, peat extraction continued through turf dredging. To guard against floods, a series of defences against the water were contrived.

    In the first millennium AD , villages and farmhouses were built on man-made hills called terps. Later, these terps were connected by dikes.

    In the 12th century, local government agencies called " waterschappen " "water boards" or " hoogheemraadschappen " "high home councils" started to appear, whose job it was to maintain the water level and to protect a region from floods; these agencies continue to exist.

    As the ground level dropped, the dikes by necessity grew and merged into an integrated system. By the 13th century windmills had come into use to pump water out of areas below sea level.

    The windmills were later used to drain lakes, creating the famous polders. The Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climate change.

    Not only is the rising sea a problem, but erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow. After the disaster , the Delta Works was constructed, a comprehensive set of civil works throughout the Dutch coast.

    The project started in and was largely completed in with the completion of the Maeslantkering. New projects have been periodically started since to renovate and renew the Delta Works.

    A main goal of the Delta project was to reduce the risk of flooding in South Holland and Zeeland to once per 10, years compared to 1 per years for the rest of the country.

    New risk assessments occasionally show problems requiring additional Delta project dike reinforcements. The Delta project is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.

    It is anticipated that global warming in the 21st century will result in a rise in sea level. The Netherlands is actively preparing for a sea level rise.

    A politically neutral Delta Commission has formulated an action plan to cope with a sea level rise of 1. The plan encompasses the reinforcement of the existing coastal defences like dikes and dunes with 1.

    Climate change will not only threaten the Netherlands from the sea side, but could also alter rainfall patterns and river run-off. To protect the country from river flooding, another program is already being executed.

    The Room for the River plan grants more flow space to rivers, protects the major populated areas and allows for periodic flooding of indefensible lands.

    The few residents who lived in these so-called "overflow areas" have been moved to higher ground, with some of that ground having been raised above anticipated flood levels.

    The predominant wind direction in the European Netherlands is southwest, which causes a mild maritime climate , with moderately warm summers and cool winters, and typically high humidity.

    This is especially true close to the Dutch coastline, where the difference in temperature between summer and winter, as well as between day and night is noticeably smaller than it is in the southeast of the country.

    On average, snow can occur from November to April, but sometimes occurs in May or October too. Precipitation throughout the year is distributed relatively equally each month.

    Summer and autumn months tend to gather a little more precipitation than the other months, mainly because of the intensity of the rainfall rather than the frequency of rain days this is especially the case in summer, when lightning is also much more frequent.

    The number of sunshine hours is affected by the fact that because of the geographical latitude, the length of the days varies between barely eight hours in December and nearly 17 hours in June.

    The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves, that include lakes , heathland , woods , dunes and other habitats.

    It consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but also includes mud flats, meadows, and shoals. Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers.

    Other activities include sailing, fishing, cycling, and bird watching. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the European territory of the Netherlands belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests.

    In , the last old original natural woods were cut down, and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands.

    The islands of the Caribbean Netherlands enjoy a tropical climate with warm weather all year round. The Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier than the Windward islands.

    In summer, the Windward Islands can be subject to hurricanes. The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since , and due to the efforts of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke , [96] a parliamentary democracy since The Netherlands is described as a consociational state.

    Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole.

    In , The Economist ranked the Netherlands as the 11th most democratic country in the world. The monarch is the head of state , at present King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands.

    Constitutionally, the position is equipped with limited powers. By law, the King has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs.

    Depending on the personalities and relationships of the King and the ministers, the monarch might have influence beyond the power granted by the Constitution of the Netherlands.

    The executive power is formed by the Council of Ministers , the deliberative organ of the Dutch cabinet. The cabinet usually consists of 13 to 16 ministers and a varying number of state secretaries.

    One to three ministers are ministers without portfolio. The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlands , who often is the leader of the largest party of the coalition.

    The Prime Minister is a primus inter pares , with no explicit powers beyond those of the other ministers. Mark Rutte has been Prime Minister since October ; the Prime Minister had been the leader of the largest party continuously since The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliament , the States General , which also has legislative powers.

    The members of the House of Representatives , the lower house , are elected in direct elections on the basis of party-list proportional representation.

    These are held every four years, or sooner in case the cabinet falls for example: The States-Provincial are directly elected every four years as well.

    The members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the Senate , the upper house , which has the power to reject laws, but not propose or amend them.

    Both houses send members to the Benelux Parliament , a consultative council. Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas.

    They meet regularly with the government in the Social-Economic Council. This body advises government and its advice cannot be put aside easily.

    The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance. In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisation , in which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government.

    This tradition of tolerance influences Dutch criminal justice policies on recreational drugs , prostitution , LGBT rights , euthanasia , and abortion , which are among the most liberal in the world.

    Because of the multi-party system , no single party has held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, and coalition cabinets had to be formed.

    Since suffrage became universal in , the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: These parties co-operated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian Democrats had always been a partner: In the s, the party system became more volatile: In the election , the CDA lost its dominant position.

    In the elections , this cabinet lost its majority, because of an increased support for the CDA and the rise of the right LPF , a new political party, around Pim Fortuyn , who was assassinated a week before the elections.

    The cabinet initiated an ambitious programme of reforming the welfare state , the healthcare system , and immigration policy. In these elections, the CDA remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains.

    The big winner of the elections was Geert Wilders , whose right wing PVV , [99] [] the ideological successor to the LPF , more than doubled its number of seats.

    On 5 November they formed the second Rutte cabinet. All provinces are divided into municipalities gemeenten , of which there are The country is also subdivided into 24 water districts, governed by a water board waterschap or hoogheemraadschap , each having authority in matters concerning water management.

    The Dutch water boards are among the oldest democratic entities in the world still in existence. Direct elections of the water boards take place every 4 years.

    The administrative structure on the 3 BES islands, collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands , is different. These islands have the status of openbare lichamen public bodies rather than municipalities and as administrative units are generally referred to as special municipalities.

    They are not part of a province. The Netherlands has several Belgian exclaves [] and within those even several enclaves which are still part of the province of North Brabant.

    Because the Netherlands and Belgium are both in the Schengen Area , citizens of respective countries can travel through these enclaves.

    The history of Dutch foreign policy has been characterised by its neutrality. The Dutch economy is very open and relies strongly on international trade.

    The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: One of the more controversial international issues surrounding the Netherlands is its liberal policy towards soft drugs.

    During and after the Dutch Golden Age , the Dutch people built up a commercial and colonial empire. The most important colonies were present-day Suriname and Indonesia.

    Indonesia became independent after the Indonesian National Revolution in the s following a war of independence, international pressure and several United Nations Security Council resolutions.

    Suriname became independent in The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands.

    In addition, many people from these countries are living permanently in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; it was first established as such by Maurice of Nassau in the late s.

    The Dutch army was used throughout the Dutch Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch army was transformed into a conscription army. The army was unsuccessfully deployed during the Belgian Revolution in After , it was deployed mainly in the Dutch colonies, as the Netherlands remained neutral in European wars including the First World War , until the Netherlands was invaded in World War II and defeated by the Wehrmacht in May In conscription was suspended, and the Dutch army was once again transformed into a professional army.

    Since the s the Dutch army has been involved in the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War , it held a province in Iraq after the defeat of Saddam Hussein , and it was engaged in Afghanistan.

    The military is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koninklijke Royal:. The submarine service is open to women as of 1 January The Korps Commandotroepen , the Special Operations Force of the Netherlands Army, is open to women, but because of the extremely high physical demands for initial training, it is almost impossible for a woman to become a commando.

    The Netherlands has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy for many centuries.

    Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, agriculture, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy.

    The Netherlands has a high level of economic freedom. The Netherlands is one of the top countries in the Global Enabling Trade Report 2nd in , and was ranked the fifth most competitive economy in the world by the Swiss International Institute for Management Development in Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector.

    Other major industries include chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, trade, services and tourism. The Netherlands has the 17th-largest economy in the world , and ranks 10th in GDP nominal per capita.

    Growth slowed considerably from to with the global economic slowdown, but accelerated to 4. In May , inflation was at 2. In Q3 and Q4 , the Dutch economy contracted by 0.

    Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands. As a founding member of the euro , the Netherlands replaced for accounting purposes its former currency, the "gulden" guilder , on 1 January , along with 15 other adopters of the euro.

    Actual euro coins and banknotes followed on 1 January One euro was equivalent to 2. In the Caribbean Netherlands , the United States dollar is used instead of the euro.

    The Dutch location gives it prime access to markets in the UK and Germany, with the Port of Rotterdam being the largest port in Europe.

    Other important parts of the economy are international trade Dutch colonialism started with co-operative private enterprises such as the Dutch East India Company , banking and transport.

    The Netherlands successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job growth long before its European partners.

    Amsterdam is the 5th-busiest tourist destination in Europe with more than 4. BrabantStad is the fastest growing economic region in the Netherlands, with the Brabantse Stedenrij polycentric city region as one of the national top regions, behind the Randstad megalopolis Amsterdam , Rotterdam , The Hague and Utrecht.

    With a total of 1. Of all the money that goes to research and development in the Netherlands, one third is spent in Eindhoven. A quarter of the jobs in the region are in technology and ICT.

    Of all European patent applications in the field of physics and electronics about eight per cent is from North Brabant.

    This economic cooperation agreement between three cities in three countries has created one of the most innovative regions in the European Union measured in terms of money invested in technology and knowledge economy.

    The Netherlands continues to be one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the five largest investors in the United States.

    The economy experienced a slowdown in , but in recovered to the fastest pace in six years on the back of increased exports and strong investment.

    The pace of job growth reached year highs in Beginning in the s, the Netherlands discovered huge natural gas resources. Apart from coal and gas, the country has no mining resources.

    The last coal mine was closed in The Groningen gas field , one of the largest natural gas fields in the world, is situated near Slochteren.

    The cost of damage repairs, structural improvements to buildings, and compensation for home value decreases has been estimated at 6. Around 35, homes are said to be affected.

    The Dutch agricultural sector is highly mechanised, and has a strong focus on international exports. Mobility on Dutch roads has grown continuously since the s and now exceeds billion km travelled per year, [] three quarters of which are done by car.

    Trains are frequent, with two trains per hour on lesser lines, [j] two to four trains per hour on average, and up to eight trains an hour on the busiest lines.

    Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands. Almost as many kilometres are covered by bicycle as by train. There are large bicycle parking facilities, particularly in city centres and at train stations.

    The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel , Switzerland, and into France.

    The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas.

    From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In , the Betuweroute , a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed.

    Schiphol Airport , just southwest of Amsterdam, is the main international airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers.

    In , the Royal Schiphol Group airports handled 70 million passengers. The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned, and will aim to provide at least one station within a kilometre radius 30 miles from every home in the Netherlands.

    The Netherlands had an estimated population of 17,, as of January It is the 63rd most populous country in the world.

    From to , the population further increased, to The fertility rate in the Netherlands is 1. Life expectancy is high in the Netherlands: According to a estimate, the population was The Dutch are the tallest people in the world, [] with an average height of 1.

    According to Eurostat , in there were 1. The Netherlands is the 24th most densely populated country in the world, with According to Dutch Central Statistics Bureau, in , 28 percent of Dutch population had a spendable income above 40, euros which does not include spendings on health care or education.

    The official language is Dutch , which is spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants. In the European part of the kingdom two other regional languages are recognised under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

    The first of these recognised regional languages is Low Saxon Nedersaksisch in Dutch. Low Saxon consists of several dialects spoken in the north and east, like Twents in the region of Twente , and Drents in the province of Drenthe.

    Secondly, Limburgish is also recognised as a regional language. It consists of Dutch varieties of Meuse-Rhenish Franconian languages and is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg.

    Ripuarian language , which is spoken in Kerkrade and Vaals in the form of, respectively, the Kerkrade dialect and the Vaals dialect [] [] is not recognised as a regional language of the Netherlands.

    These dialects are however sometimes considered to be a part of or related to Limburgish. English has a formal status in the special municipalities of Saba and Sint Eustatius.

    It is widely spoken on these islands. Papiamento has a formal status in the special municipality of Bonaire. Yiddish and the Romani language were recognised in as non-territorial languages.

    Only during the last three years in VWO one foreign language is mandatory. Besides English, the standard modern languages are French and German , although schools can replace one of these modern languages with Chinese , Spanish , Russian , Italian , Turkish or Arabic.

    Religious identification in the Netherlands [6]. The Dutch are one of the least religious people in the world. Religion in the Netherlands was predominantly Christianity until late into the 20th century.

    Although religious diversity remains, there has been a decline of religious adherence. In , Statistics Netherlands , the Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands, found that Groups that represent the non-religious in the Netherlands include Humanistisch Verbond.

    Christians comprised the Islam comprised the 4. The Constitution of the Netherlands guarantees freedom of education, which means that all schools that adhere to general quality criteria receive the same government funding.

    This includes schools based on religious principles by religious groups especially Roman Catholic and various Protestant. By , Protestantism shrunk demographically to equal Roman Catholicism, and going onwards, both Christian branches began to decline.

    There is one major exception: Islam which grew considerably as the result of immigration. Since the year there has been raised awareness of religion, mainly due to Muslim extremism.

    The Dutch royal family has been traditionally associated with Calvinism , specifically the disestablished and now non-existent Dutch Reformed Church.

    The Dutch Reformed Church has been the only major Protestant church in the Netherlands from the Protestant Reformation up until the 19th century.

    It encompassed the vast majority of Protestants in the Reformed tradition until a series of splits in and in diversified Dutch Calvinism.

    In , a Roman Catholic became Queen consort. Christianity is currently the largest religion in the Netherlands. The provinces of North Brabant and Limburg have historically been strongly Roman Catholic, and some of their people might still consider the Catholic Church as a base for their cultural identity.

    Protestantism in the Netherlands consists of a number of churches within various traditions. Several orthodox Reformed and liberal churches did not merge into the PKN.

    Although in the Netherlands as a whole Christianity has become a minority, the Netherlands contains a Bible Belt from Zeeland to the northern parts of the province Overijssel , in which Protestant particularly Reformed beliefs remain strong, and even has majorities in municipal councils.

    Islam is the second largest religion in the state. This included migrants from former Dutch colonies , such as Surinam and Indonesia , but mainly migrant workers from Turkey and Morocco.

    Most of these are Indo-Surinamese. There are also sizable populations of Hindu immigrants from India and Sri Lanka , and some Western adherents of Hinduism-oriented new religious movements such as Hare Krishnas.

    The Netherlands has an estimated , Buddhists or people strongly attracted to this religion, mainly ethnic Dutch people. There are about 45, Jews in the Netherlands.

    Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 5 and All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from on average ages 4 to It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative.

    After completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream.

    The VMBO has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels. Successfully completing the vmbo results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the MBO.

    The MBO middle-level applied education is a form of education primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree.

    A HBO degree gives access to the university system. The VWO comprising atheneum and gymnasium has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a research university.

    Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university. All Dutch schools and universities are publicly funded and managed with the exception of religious schools that are publicly funded but not managed by the state even though requirements are necessary for the funding to be authorised.

    Dutch universities have a tuition fee of about 2, euros a year for students from the Netherlands and the European Union.

    The amount is about 10, euros for non-EU students. In , the Netherlands has maintained its number one position at the top of the annual Euro health consumer index EHCI , which compares healthcare systems in Europe, scoring of a maximum 1, points.

    The Netherlands has been in the top three countries in each report published since On 48 indicators such as patient rights and information, accessibility, prevention and outcomes, the Netherlands secured its top position among 37 European countries for the sixth year in a row.

    Ever since a major reform of the health care system in , the Dutch system received more points in the Index each year.

    The difference between the Netherlands and other countries is that the chaos is managed. Healthcare decisions are being made in a dialogue between the patients and healthcare professionals.

    Health insurance in the Netherlands is mandatory. Healthcare in the Netherlands is covered by two statutory forms of insurance:. In contrast to many other European systems, the Dutch government is responsible for the accessibility and quality of the healthcare system in the Netherlands, but not in charge of its management.

    Healthcare in the Netherlands can be divided in several ways: Home doctors huisartsen , comparable to general practitioners form the largest part of the first echelon.

    Being referenced by a member of the first echelon is mandatory for access to the second and third echelon.

    Healthcare in the Netherlands is financed by a dual system that came into effect in January Long-term treatments, especially those that involve semi-permanent hospitalisation, and also disability costs such as wheelchairs, are covered by a state-controlled mandatory insurance.

    For all regular short-term medical treatment, there is a system of obligatory health insurance , with private health insurance companies.

    These insurance companies are obliged to provide a package with a defined set of insured treatments. A key feature of the Dutch system is that premiums may not be related to health status or age.

    Risk variances between private health insurance companies due to the different risks presented by individual policy holders are compensated through risk equalisation and a common risk pool.

    Children under 18 are covered for free. Those on low incomes receive compensation to help them pay their insurance. The Netherlands has had many well-known painters.

    Escher is a well-known graphics artist. Willem de Kooning was born and trained in Rotterdam , although he is considered to have reached acclaim as an American artist.

    The Netherlands is the country of philosophers Erasmus of Rotterdam and Spinoza. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms with a microscope.

    Hooft as the two most famous writers. In the 19th century, Multatuli wrote about the poor treatment of the natives in the Dutch colony, the current Indonesia.

    The traditional Dutch architecture is especially valuated in Amsterdam , Delft and Leiden , with 17 and 18th century buildings along the canals.

    Smaller village architecture with wooden houses is found in Zaandam and Marken. A similar Holland Village is being built in Shenyang , China.

    Windmills , tulips , wooden shoes , cheese, Delftware pottery, and cannabis are among the items associated with the Netherlands by tourists.

    The Netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and today is regarded as a liberal country, considering its drug policy and its legalisation of euthanasia.

    On 1 April , the Netherlands became the first nation to legalise same-sex marriage. Dutch society is egalitarian and modern. The Dutch have an aversion to the non-essential.

    The Dutch are proud of their cultural heritage , rich history in art and involvement in international affairs.

    Dutch manners are open and direct with a no-nonsense attitude; informality combined with adherence to basic behaviour. According to a humorous source on Dutch culture, "Their directness gives many the impression that they are rude and crude — attributes they prefer to call openness.

    Asking about basic rules will not be considered impolite. The Netherlands is one of the most secular countries of Europe, and religion is in the Netherlands generally considered as a personal matter which is not supposed to be propagated in public, although it often remains a discussion subject.

    The Netherlands has the reputation of the leader country in environmental and population management. Sustainability is a concept important for the Dutch.

    The goal of the Dutch Government is to have a sustainable , reliable and affordable energy system, by , in which CO 2 emissions have been halved and 40 percent of electricity is derived from sustainable sources.

    The government is investing billions of euros in energy efficiency , sustainable energy and CO 2 reduction. The Netherlands has multiple music traditions.

    Traditional Dutch music is a genre known as " Levenslied ", meaning Song of life , to an extent comparable to a French Chanson or a German Schlager.

    These songs typically have a simple melody and rhythm, and a straightforward structure of couplets and refrains. Themes can be light, but are often sentimental and include love , death and loneliness.

    Traditional musical instruments such as the accordion and the barrel organ are a staple of levenslied music, though in recent years many artists also use synthesisers and guitars.

    Contemporary Dutch rock and pop music Nederpop originated in the s, heavily influenced by popular music from the United States and Britain.

    In the s and s the lyrics were mostly in English, and some tracks were instrumental. As of the s, more and more pop musicians started working in the Dutch language, partly inspired by the huge success of the band Doe Maar.

    Today Dutch rock and pop music thrives in both languages, with some artists recording in both. Early s Dutch and Belgian house music came together in Eurodance project 2 Unlimited.

    Selling 18 million records, [] the two singers in the band are the most successful Dutch music artists to this day. Tracks like " Get Ready for This " are still popular themes of U.

    In the mid s Dutch language rap and hip hop Nederhop also came to fruition and has become popular in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    Since the s, Dutch electronic dance music EDM gained widespread popularity in the world in many forms, from trance , techno and gabber to hardstyle.

    In classical music , Jan Sweelinck ranks as the Dutch most famous composer, with Louis Andriessen amongst the best known living Dutch classical composers.

    Ton Koopman is a Dutch conductor, organist and harpsichordist. He is also professor at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague.

    The most famous Dutch classical composition is " Canto Ostinato " by Simeon ten Holt , a minimalistic composition for multiple instruments.

    Film director Theo van Gogh achieved international notoriety in when he was murdered by Mohammed Bouyeri in the streets of Amsterdam after directing the short film Submission.

    The Netherlands has a well developed television market, with both multiple commercial and public broadcasters. Imported TV programmes, as well as interviews with responses in a foreign language, are virtually always shown with the original sound and subtitled.

    Only foreign shows for children are translated. TV exports from the Netherlands mostly take the form of specific formats and franchises, most notably through internationally active TV production conglomerate Endemol , founded by Dutch media tycoons John de Mol and Joop van den Ende.

    Headquartered in Amsterdam , Endemol has around 90 companies in over 30 countries. Endemol and its subsidiaries create and run reality, talent, and game show franchises worldwide, including Big Brother and Deal or No Deal.

    John de Mol later started his own company Talpa which created show franchises like The Voice and Utopia. About two-thirds of the population between 15 and 75 participates in sports weekly.

    Tennis, gymnastics and golf are the three most widely engaged in individual sports. Organisation of sports began at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.

    Federations for sports were established such as the speed skating federation in , rules were unified and sports clubs came into existence.

    A Dutch National Olympic Committee was established in Thus far, the nation has won medals at the Summer Olympic Games and another medals at the Winter Olympic Games.

    In international competition, Dutch national teams and athletes are dominant in several fields of sport. The Netherlands baseball team have won the European championship 20 times out of 32 events.

    Motorcycle racing at the TT Assen Circuit has a long history. Assen is the only venue to have held a round of the Motorcycle World Championship every year since its creation in The circuit was purpose built for the Dutch TT in , with previous events having been held on public roads.

    The coastal resort of Zandvoort hosted the Dutch Grand Prix from to Dutch cuisine is simple and straightforward, and contains many dairy products.

    Breakfast and lunch are typically bread with toppings, with cereal for breakfast as an alternative. Traditionally, dinner consists of potatoes, a portion of meat, and seasonal vegetables.

    The Dutch diet was relatively high in carbohydrates and fat, reflecting the dietary needs of the labourers whose culture moulded the country.

    Without many refinements, it is best described as rustic, though many holidays are still celebrated with special foods.

    In the course of the twentieth century this diet changed and became much more cosmopolitan , with most global cuisines being represented in the major cities.

    Modern culinary writers distinguish between three general regional forms of Dutch cuisine. The regions in the northeast of the Netherlands, roughly the provinces of Groningen , Friesland , Drenthe , Overijssel and Gelderland north of the great rivers are the least populated area of the Netherlands.

    The late 18th century introduction of large scale agriculture means that the cuisine is generally known for its many kinds of meats.

    The relative lack of farms allowed for an abundance of game and husbandry , though dishes near the coastal regions of Friesland, Groningen and the parts of Overijssel bordering the IJsselmeer also include a large amount of fish.

    The various dried sausages, belonging to the metworst -family of Dutch sausages are found throughout this region and are highly prized for their often very strong taste.

    Also smoked sausages are common, of which Gelderse rookworst is the most renowned. The sausage contains a lot of fat and is very juicy.

    Larger sausages are often eaten alongside stamppot , hutspot or zuurkool sauerkraut ; whereas smaller ones are often eaten as a street food.

    The provinces are also home to hard textured rye bread , pastries and cookies, the latter heavily spiced with ginger or succade or contain small bits of meat.

    Notable characteristics of Fries roggebrood Frisian rye bread is its long baking time up to 20 hours , resulting in a sweet taste and a deep dark colour.

    As a coastal region, Friesland is home to low-lying grasslands, and thus has a cheese production in common with the Western cuisine.

    Friese Nagelkaas Friesian Clove is a notable example. The provinces of North Holland , South Holland , Zeeland , Utrecht and the Gelderlandic region of Betuwe are the parts of the Netherlands which make up the region in which western Dutch cuisine is found.

    Because of the abundance of water and flat grass lands that are found here, the area is known for its many dairy products, which includes prominent cheeses such as Gouda , Leyden spiced cheese with cumin , Edam traditionally in small spheres as well as Leerdammer and Beemster , while the adjacent Zaanstreek in North Holland is since the 16th century known for its mayonnaise , typical whole-grain mustards [] and chocolate industry.

    Zeeland and South Holland produce a lot of butter, which contains a larger amount of milkfat than most other European butter varieties.

    A by-product of the butter-making process, karnemelk buttermilk , is also considered typical for this region. Kibbeling , once a local delicacy consisting of small chunks of battered white fish , has become a national fast food , just as lekkerbek.

    Pastries in this area tend to be quite doughy, and often contain large amounts of sugar; either caramelised, powdered or crystallised. The oliebol in its modern form and Zeeuwse bolus are good examples.

    Cookies are also produced in great number and tend to contain a lot of butter and sugar, like stroopwafel , as well as a filling of some kind, mostly almond, like gevulde koek.

    The traditional alcoholic beverages of this region are beer strong pale lager and Jenever , a high proof juniper -flavored spirit, that came to be known in England as gin.

    A noted exception within the traditional Dutch alcoholic landscape, Advocaat , a rich and creamy liqueur made from eggs, sugar and brandy, is also native to this region.

    It is renowned for its many rich pastries, soups, stews and vegetable dishes and is often called Burgundian which is a Dutch idiom invoking the rich Burgundian court which ruled the Low Countries in the Middle Ages, renowned for its splendor and great feasts.

    It is the only Dutch culinary region that developed an haute cuisine. Pastries are abundant, often with rich fillings of cream, custard or fruits.

    Savoury pastries also occur, with the worstenbroodje a roll with a sausage of ground beef , literally translates into sausage bread being the most popular.

    The traditional alcoholic beverage of the region is beer. There are many local brands, ranging from Trappist to Kriek.

    Beer, like wine in French cuisine, is also used in cooking; often in stews. In early , Oxfam ranked the Netherlands as the country with the most nutritious, plentiful and healthy food, in a comparison of countries.

    From the exploitations of the Dutch East India Company in the 17th century, to the colonisations in the 19th century, Dutch imperial possessions continued to expand, reaching their greatest extent by establishing a hegemony of the Dutch East Indies in the early 20th century.

    The Dutch East Indies, which later formed modern-day Indonesia, was one of the most valuable European colonies in the world and the most important one for the Netherlands.

    In the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, the Netherlands urbanised considerably, mostly financed by corporate revenue from the Asian trade monopolies.

    When the Dutch royal family was established in , much of its wealth came from Colonial trade. Afterward, they established ports in Dutch occupied Malabar , leading to Dutch settlements and trading posts in India.

    However, their expansion into India was halted, after their defeat in the Battle of Colachel by the Kingdom of Travancore , during the Travancore-Dutch War.

    The Dutch never recovered from the defeat and no longer posed a large colonial threat to India. Universities such as the Royal Leiden University , founded in the 16th century, have developed into leading knowledge centres for Southeast Asian and Indonesian studies.

    Leiden University and in particular KITLV are educational and scientific institutions that to this day share both an intellectual and historical interest in Indonesian studies.

    Other scientific institutions in the Netherlands include the Amsterdam Tropenmuseum , an anthropological museum with massive collections of Indonesian art, culture, ethnography and anthropology.

    A specific segment of Dutch literature called Dutch Indies literature still exists and includes established authors, such as Louis Couperus , the writer of "The Hidden Force", taking the colonial era as an important source of inspiration.

    The majority of Dutchmen that repatriated to the Netherlands after and during the Indonesian revolution are Indo Eurasian , native to the islands of the Dutch East Indies.

    This relatively large Eurasian population had developed over a period of years and were classified by colonial law as belonging to the European legal community.

    Including their second generation descendants, Indos are currently the largest foreign-born group in the Netherlands.

    Many Indonesian dishes and foodstuffs have become commonplace in the Netherlands. For many Dutch football supporters, the most important match in the tournament was the semi-final against West Germany, the host country, considered a revenge for the lost World Cup final also in West Germany.

    Van Basten scored in the 89th minute to sink the German side. Despite high expectations as the team entered the World Cup in Italy, the tournament was not a success, as strife within the squad and managerial instability Thijs Libregts took over from Michels only to be fired shortly after the team qualified, and was replaced by Leo Beenhakker for the finals ultimately tore the team apart.

    Van Basten failed to score, as he was in poor form and tightly marked by opposing defenders, while Gullit was ineffective having not fully recovered from injury.

    The Dutch managed to advance despite drawing all three group games, meeting their arch-rivals West Germany in the round of It was also the last hurrah for Rinus Michels, who returned for one final spell in charge of the team before retiring for good after the tournament ended.

    Dick Advocaat took over from Michels on the understanding that he himself would be replaced by Johan Cruyff the following year, although Advocaat actually stayed in charge for over two years.

    In the World Cup in the United States, in the absence of the injured Van Basten and the striking Gullit, Dennis Bergkamp led the team with three goals and the Netherlands advanced to the quarter-finals, where they lost 3—2 to eventual champions Brazil.

    They then played France in the quarter-finals and lost on penalties. Soon afterwards, manager Guus Hiddink resigned to be replaced by Frank Rijkaard.

    The Netherlands co-hosted Euro with Belgium and won all three wins in the group stage and then defeated FR Yugoslavia 6—1 in the quarter-finals.

    In the semi-finals, Italian goalkeeper Francesco Toldo made two penalty shootout saves to eliminate the Netherlands. The Netherlands failed to qualify for the World Cup after crucial losses to Portugal and the Republic of Ireland, prompting manager Louis van Gaal to resign.

    Dick Advocaat returned to coach the Netherlands for a second time. The Netherlands qualified for the World Cup under new manager Marco van Basten and were eliminated in the second round after losing 1—0 to Portugal, in a match which produced 16 yellow cards which matched the World Cup record for most cautions in one game set in and set a new World Cup record of four red cards two for either side ; it was nicknamed "the Battle of Nuremberg " by the press.

    They began with a 3—0 win over world champions Italy in Bern , a first victory over the Italians since Following the tournament, Van Basten resigned to become manager of Ajax.

    In the quarter-finals against Brazil, the Brazilians held a 1—0 lead at half-time, having never lost in 37 World Cup matches 35—0—2 in which they had held a half-time lead.

    However, the Dutch scored twice to advance. From August to September , the team was ranked number one in the FIFA World Rankings , therefore becoming the second national football team, after Spain, to top the rankings without previously winning a World Cup.

    Louis van Gaal then became manager for the second time. In the World Cup UEFA qualifying round , the Netherlands won nine games and drew one, topping the group and earning automatic qualification.

    The team avenged their defeat by defeating title holders Spain 5—1 in their opening match, with Robin van Persie and Arjen Robben scoring two goals each, and Stefan de Vrij the other.

    After the Dutch fell behind 1—0 from conceding a penalty, Van Persie equalized just before half time with an acrobatic diving header that gave him the nickname "The Flying Dutchman".

    The Netherlands defeated Mexico 2—1 in the round of 16, with Wesley Sneijder equalising late in the match, and Klaas-Jan Huntelaar scoring a controversial penalty after a foul on Arjen Robben in stoppage time.

    In the quarter-finals, where they faced Costa Rica , the Dutch had many shots on goal but could not score, with the match finishing in a 0—0 draw after extra time.

    The Netherlands won the ensuing penalty shootout 4—3 in large part due to backup goalkeeper Tim Krul , who was brought on just before the end of extra time and made two saves, marking the first time in World Cup history a goalkeeper was brought onto the field solely to participate in a shootout.

    However, in penalty kicks, the Dutch were eliminated 4—2, with Ron Vlaar and Wesley Sneijder having their spot kicks saved by Sergio Romero. Van Gaal, who successfully motivated the team after their semi-final knockout, [24] received praise for getting more out of the young and inexperienced Netherlands squad than many expected.

    Van Gaal was followed up by Guus Hiddink for the Euro qualifying campaign. On 29 June , Hiddink resigned and was succeeded by assistant Danny Blind.

    The Netherlands finished fourth in their group and thereby failed to qualify for the European Championship for the first time since , and missing a major tournament for the first time since the World Cup.

    In February , Advocaat was replaced by Ronald Koeman , on a contract until the summer of The following matchday, they won 3—0 against rivals Germany.

    In their next Nations League fixture, they beat France 2—0 followed by a 2—2 draw against Germany securing them advancement to the Nations League finals.

    The Netherlands national football team famously plays in bright orange shirts. Orange is the historic national colour of the Netherlands, originating from one of the many titles of the ruling head of state, Prince of Orange , which is also the colour of the same name.

    The current Dutch away shirt is blue. Nike is the kit provider to the national team, a sponsorship that began in and is contracted to continue until at least The rivalry is one of the few long-standing football rivalries at a national level.

    Beginning in , when the Dutch lost the World Cup to West Germany in the final though deeply rooted in Dutch anti-German sentiment due to the occupation of the Netherlands by Germany during World War II , the rivalry between the two nations has become one of the best-known international football rivalries in the world.

    To a minor extent, the Netherlands maintains a rivalry with their other neighbours, Belgium ; a Belgian-Dutch football duel is referred to as a Low Countries derby.

    More recently, the Netherlands have also developed a rivalry with Spain. The following players were called for the Nations League matches against France and Germany on 16 and 19 November The following players have been called up for the team in the last 12 months.

    INJ Player withdrew from the squad due to an injury. RET Player had announced retirement from national team. SUS Player is serving suspension.

    The following matches were played or are scheduled to be played by the national team in the past or in the upcoming 12 months. The time in the Netherlands is shown first.

    If the local time is different, it will be displayed below. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the football club in Essex, see Holland F.

    This article or section appears to be slanted towards recent events. Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non-recent events.

    June Learn how and when to remove this template message. History of the Netherlands national football team. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it.

    Germany—Netherlands football rivalry and Low Countries derby. List of Netherlands national football team managers. Johan Cruyff Arena Attendance: Johan Cruyff Arena Referee: Stade de France Referee: Alberto Undiano Mallenco Spain.

    Netherlands national football team records and statistics. Highlighted names denote a player still playing or available for selection. Association football portal Netherlands portal.

    In the Netherlands however, professional football would only be introduced in , and before that time, players who left the Netherlands to turn pro in another country were banned from the national team.

    Retrieved 25 July Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 20 December FIFA published the ranking on 24 August.

    Retrieved 29 January Full "A" internationals — ". Retrieved 15 May Retrieved 30 December

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